Content: 11006.rar (189.15 KB)
Uploaded: 07.09.2010

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Lectures include 60 questions, the volume of 1-2 pages. Made textbooks 2009-2010.

Crib is made of lecture notes, double-sided, measuring 4.5 x 7.5 cm (easily fits into the palm).


1. Place the ecology in the natural sciences

2. The current understanding of the ecology as the science of ecosystems and the biosphere

3. The levels of the study of the biosphere

4. Formation of the image of the biosphere in the process of vital activity of organisms

5. The composition of air, water, soil origin, their biotic regulation

6. Issues related to anthropogenic impact on the biosphere

7. The ecological crisis

8. Interaction between organism and environment

9. The fundamental properties of living systems.

10. The body as a discrete self-reproducing an open system. A variety of organisms.

11. Photosynthesis and respiration. Photosynthetic organisms

12. Chemosynthesis life under anaerobic conditions

13. The main groups of heterotrophs. Trophic relationships between organisms

14. Homeostasis. Principles of regulation of vital functions. Possibilities of adaptation of organisms to changes in environmental conditions. Tolerance and resistance

15. Terms and resources protection. Physico-chemical habitat organisms. Water, soil and air pollution

16. abiotic and biotic factors. Ecological importance of abiotic factors

17. essential and irreplaceable resources. Daily and seasonal cycle

18. Regulation (law) Liebig's law Shelford. The interaction of environmental factors

19. The notion of ecological niche. Bioassay and bioindication. Stress as an ecological factor

20. The definition of the concepts of "species" and "population". The hierarchical structure of populations. Settling in populations of organisms and communication

21. The population as part of the ecosystem. Static characteristics of the population: the number, density, age and sex composition

22. The nature of the spatial distribution of species and detection. Types of distribution of individuals

23. Regulation of the population in the wild. The dynamic characteristics of the population

24. Tables and curves of survival, growth

25. Biomass and ways of expression. Dynamics of biomass. Bioproductivity

26. Biocenosis (community), their taxonomic composition and functional structure

27. Types of relationships between organisms

28. The principle of competitive exclusion. Competition and distribution of species

29. Relationship "predator - prey". Coupling evolution

30. The development of ecosystems: succession. The use of matter and energy in ecosystems

31. The value of photo- and chemosynthesis

32. The climatic zoning and the main types of terrestrial ecosystems. Tundra, swamps, taiga

33. temperate forests, steppes, deserts, tropical rain forests

34. The vertical structure of aquatic ecosystems. Continental waters

35. The biological structure of the ocean. Neritic and pelagic area. Areas of upwelling. The intensity of the primary production in different parts of the World Ocean

36. The capacity and stability of ecosystems. Species diversity as a major factor of stability of ecosystems

37. Biosphere

38. Origin and soil classification

39. A variety of soil properties as a result of ecosystem functioning and the condition of their sustainability

40. The energy balance of the biosphere. The cycle of chemical elements

41. Man as a species. Ecotype. Homeostasis and Adaptation

42. The ontogeny of man and his critical periods. Human environment, a variety of conditions

43. Environmental factors and human health. Ecopathology

44. Human genetics and genetic load. Terms playback healthy offspring

45. Life in the agro-urban ecosystems, and. Life in extreme conditions

46. \u200b\u200bPopulation health indicators. Population growth, technological change and the nature of

47. Global envir
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